In fact, research clearly shows that the cost of climate inaction far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the U.S. fails to meet its Paris climate goals, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A global failure to meet the NDCs currently set out in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. At the same time, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets through infrastructure investments in clean energy and energy efficiency could have huge global benefits – around $19 trillion. These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those in other international agreements. While the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily track each nation`s progress and foster a sense of global peer pressure, which discourages any hesitation between countries that might consider doing so. Adjustment issues received more attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must report on their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  The Kyoto Protocol, the international agreement that preceded the Paris Agreement, was also „under” the UNFCCC, although its provisions differ significantly from those of the Paris Agreement. Ultimately, all parties have acknowledged the need to „avoid, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular, any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will seek to answer questions on the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities for losses.
 The EU and its Member States are among the approximately 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU officially ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries, from which at least 55% of global emissions escape, had to deposit their instruments of ratification. .