A lifting and spoke structure can offer considerable advantages to investment fund managers. These types of funds offer many efficiency gains from their bundled structure. With a Hub and Spoke structure, the capital is transferred to the master fund, where all transactions are carried out, which helps to reduce transaction costs. With the inclusion of lifting and spoke agreements, the CCI must define a specific standard to deal with a combination of vertical and horizontal agreements. Hub and Spoke agreements are horizontal restrictions at the supplier or distributor level (the „shelves”) implemented by vertically related players, which serve as a common „hub” (e.g. B a manufacturer, retailer or common service provider). The „Hub” facilitates the coordination of competition between the „shelves” without direct contact between the shelves. In extreme cases, the effects of a hardcore horizontal cartel can be achieved solely on the basis of indirect communication between the horizontal members of a Hub and Spoke arrangement. The existence of a hub-and-spoke conspiracy legally depends on the existence of a horizontal agreement between the rays, usually indicated to determine whether there is evidence of an „edge” connecting the rays. This article shows that the circumstantial evidence that a court can use to reach such an agreement is much more limited than the evidence of parallel behavior usually used in a standard horizontal conspiracy case. It is also necessary to explicitly take into account the vertical relationship between the hub and the rays and exclude the possibility that the parallel saliva behavior involves only a series of distinct vertical chords accepted by each saliva in their individual interest. The analysis states that the most important economic condition to focus on is the vertical sanction for the application of the Hub contract and, consequently, its ability to unilaterally impose its vertical requirements. The determination of whether a factual model should be considered as evidence of a horizontal agreement or only as a set of purely vertical agreements includes an analysis of the economic costs and benefits of non-compliance with different languages and the speed of simultaneous acceptance of Hub`s contractual terms.
These factors are studied in a number of current hub-and-spoke cases, as well as in the classic case of the Interstate Circuit. The integration of the Hub and Spoke agreement into the Indian agreements is a good thing….